how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound

Posted On:01.11.2021
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In the case of powered speakers, you can always buy and use two separate speakers to fully reproduce the stereo image your keyboard delivers. The idea behind this technique is to separate the dry signal (without effects) from the wet signal (with effects) so that they don't interfere with each other, while preserving the maximum presence. Learn More, We understand the importance of online privacy and are committed to complying with the EU General Data Protection Regulation. Plug the speaker cable into the high frequency amplifier's speaker output jack, and the other end into the high frequency horn input jack. Run speaker wire in exactly the same way from the back of the second amplifier into input B. France, Crossovers handle the separation of sound frequencies, and handle their distribution to speakers. guitar cable image by Darko Draskovic from, How to Program a Bearcat Uniden BC248CLT Scanner, Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Yamaha RX-A2020 AV Receiver Backpanel - notice the highlighted main front left/right preamp outputs. Press the “Start” key, type “Sound Settings”, and hit “Return” to load the Settings screen. The voltage available across amp’s bridged channels working together in a push-pull fashion is: Total voltage: 2 x 14.14V = 28.28V. Route the signal out of that amp’s … You must determine the impedance (ohms) and wattage specifications of all amplifiers and speakers. EUR If you do use two of the same amp, then phase and grounding issues will likely not be a problem, and you should be able to simply use a stereo stompbox of any variety to split the signal. Only use shielded connection cables for all device connections except speakers. I have a strong preference for the dual amp/dual cabinet method of achieving stereo guitar tones, for the simple reason that it sounds the best, and gives the player the widest range of tonal options. These amps are better for keyboards than a mono keyboard or guitar amplifier. Another type of setup uses three cabinets in a “wet/dry/wet” arrangement, with the center amp running your dry (unaffected) guitar signal, and the outer two speakers running a 100% affected signal panned to each side. And of course, for players that use delay and modulation effects, experiencing these tones in full stereo is powerfully addictive. Consult your owner's manual or manufacturer's Web site for specific information. There are also economic factors to keep in mind, as converting a mono guitar setup to stereo sometimes requires a gear investment, however, many players will already have everything (or almost everything) required, and will need only to take some time to set it up properly. So the speaker on my guitar amp blew out and I started using a 12 in speaker from a home stereo system as my speaker. Plug the hum-reducing adaptor into the wall outlet. Other stereo modulation effects, such as flangers and choruses, also make use of multiple speakers in a similar fashion. Plug a connection cable into the crossover's high frequency output jack, and into the input jack of the amplifier that will drive the high frequency horn speaker. These methods are more limited in certain ways than the multi-amp/cab method, as you can't alter the physical spread of the speakers, but they do cut down on the amount of gear needed as well as lugging around extra amplifiers and cabinets. Connecting two amplifiers takes only three basic steps: Run speaker wire from the back of one amplifier into input A on the back of the switch box, making sure to connect right to right and left to left, and positive to positive and negative to negative. 3. Using stereo effects and creating unique tone blends are a couple of the biggest benefits to the dual amp setup, but the possibilities with a rig like this are endless. At gigs, the audience will be more appreciative (even if they're not sure why), and for the guitarist, the sound on stage will be infinitely more inspiring, as well as naturally more immune to variability in the quality of monitoring and the overall mix on stage. By combining these two effects you can, for example, connect four 8Ω speakers to an amplifier intended to drive an 8Ω load as in Figure 4 (above). If you use a tuner pedal, it needs … Plug the ¼­inch adapter into the computer’s audio input jack. If you want to use them as standalone applications, please set up your audio device first. These terminals are either the spring clip or binding post type. I think beginning guitarists should not buy "beginner amps". Headphone amps are great for playing in a moving vehicle, at the beach, in a hotel room, or in the airport lounge, and they can even output the signal to tape or disc, suitable for recording. With a switch that meets all the above conditions, you can safely connect two amplifiers (or two receivers, or an amp and a receiver) to one set of speakers. Depending on your equipment, the output will be balanced (low impedance) or unbalanced (high impedance) and will require either a 1/4 inch or XLR connector. Register the device 2. In both studio and live contexts, going stereo enhances depth, power, realism, and dynamics immeasurably, for listeners and players alike. Plug the speaker cable into the high frequency amplifier's speaker output jack, and the other end into the high frequency horn input jack. I know I can't connect the amp … Plug a standard shielded connection cable into the mixer's main output. Most all stereo receivers, amplifiers, and standard speakers (i.e., ones that are able to receive signals through speaker wire connections) feature terminals on the back for connecting speaker wires. Stereo heads are much less common, for some reason, though companies such as Luker Amplifiers do make them, so most players going stereo into a single cab will likely use two separate mono heads with a stereo pedal or an ABY switcher to split the signal, as described above. You will need additional cables to connect both the right and left sides of the mixer, crossover, amplifiers and speakers. If you can connect headphones to your amp, then your amp has a headphone output. Even players that don't use much in the way of effects can benefit from the greater girth, power, and complexity that is inherent in a stereo guitar rig. Matt McKay began his writing career in 1999, writing training programs and articles for a national corporation. Plug Connectors in the Amplifier. Your purchases help youth music programs get the gear they need to make music. This way you will be able to use your favorite amp to color the overall sound, while delegating sound spatialization to one or more other amps, which can be mono or stereo. Using a ¼ to 3.5 mm adapter is also a possibility too. You must determine the correct crossover frequencies for your model of speaker. Connect 12-Gauge Speaker Wire from the Negative (-) Speaker Output on the Master amp to the Negative (-) Speaker Output on the Slave Amplifier. Run the left/right signal out of the delay into two separate amps set for a clean sound. ADS speakers PS audio ultimate power outlet. But don't worry, there's no need to get a loan on your house, because th… The frequencies are sent to dedicated amplifiers, which are connected to dedicated speakers. Follow the sections below to get started. BIAS FX, BIAS Amp and BIAS Pedal can be used as plugins or standalone software. If phase difference or ground loop issues do occur, an excellent solution is a product like the Radial Engineering BigShot ABY. My old speakers are damaged. Specifications can be found in the owner's manual or on the manufacturer's Web site. Everything should always be in stereo. The sound source creates the overall sound signal, and the crossover filters and separates the frequencies. Every human with a functional pair of ears knows instinctively that stereo is always better than mono, because real life is stereo. Two for the left, and two for the right. Plug the right channel cable’s Phone plug into the mixer’s right channel output jack and the left channel cable into the mixer’s left channel output jack. And you could always plug the right channel into one guitar amp … Plug the speaker cable into the low frequency amplifier's speaker output jack, and the other end into the low frequency bass speaker input jack. Turn your amp on and connect it to a computer using a USB cable. You can also keep one amp completely dry, while the other one handles the effects. As I've mentioned in previous articles dealing with the subject, two amps are always better than one. By clicking Subscribe, I agree my data may be used for marketing purposes including email communications and third party marketing. Plug a connection cable into the crossover's low frequency output jack, and into the input of the amplifier that will drive the low frequency bass speaker. Situation: I get a hum through the speakers when either of the two pre amps are connected to the Main Power Amp. Using the wrong cables will result in unacceptable noise, radio frequency interference, and inadequate volume levels. Power across the 4 ohm subwoofer: V x V / R = (28.28)*(28.28) / 4 = 800 / 4 = 400W in bridged mode. There are also tremolos that work in stereo, so they will ping-pong the tremolo back and forth between the two amps,” explains Rooster. Kick on a panning delay or tremolo, and let the brain-melting psychedelia ensue! Please check the fields highlighted in red. “A stereo signal is where your effects have a stereo image, like a ‘ping-pong’ delay or a rotary pedal’s spinning horn. Experimenting with physical placement can also be very rewarding, as you can easily create extreme stereo spread on stage by simply moving each amp to a different side of the stage. I want to connect the stereo system to my new soundbar (Samsung Harman/Kardon HW-N850) so that I can listen to music through that. For stereo operation, the wiring configuration is exactly the same, but with a left and right side. Amp (-) to Amp (-) These connections is what Physically ‘bridges’ the amps together! The simplest way to set up a dual-amp stereo rig is to use two amps of the same make and model, in either a combo or head-and-cab arrangement. Based on your location, we've changed your settings: Shipping Region: Putting Your Pedals in Order Put your tuner pedal first in the chain. Turn off your amp and unplug it from the wall. Connect a ¼-inch instrument cable into each amplifiers ¼-inch input jack. By the end you should be using one source, divided to two amps, to power four speakers. Plug a connection cable into the crossover's low frequency output jack, and into the input of the amplifier that will drive the low frequency bass speaker. Locate the “Input” selection below and choose your amplifier as the input device. A few possibilities for this kind of arrangement include using a single stereo amp running into a stereo 2x12 or 4x12 cabinet, two mono heads running into a single stereo cabinet, or just a single stereo combo amp. No, it doesn’t. You simply connect a pair of RCA terminated line-level cables from the front or main channel preamp outputs of your A/V receiver to the inputs of the external two-channel power amp. Hum-reducing adaptors help balance out frequencies if you have to plug your equipment into 2 separate outlets. I have a Denon amplifier that my CD changer and tuner are connected to. Take these two amps and run them in stereo, along with a stereo delay, reverb, or modulation pedal, and the sound becomes a fully enveloping, uniquely responsive musical experience. Connect the ¼-inch instrument cables from each amp into a ¼-inch female end of the Y-cable. If you fake any step, it will sound fake. Many players using stereo rigs these days are using modeling preamps, like the very popular Fractal Axe FX II, and either going direct to the PA or recorder with them, or running them into a stereo power amp and then into one or more speaker cabs. There are a few different methods for running a rig in stereo using just a single stereo cabinet. The signal from your mp3 player, CD player or other outboard devices is traveling into the amp. A signal is traveling out of the amp and into the headphones. Use only unshielded speaker cables for speaker connections. Incorrect crossover settings can result in speaker damage. Another cool trick is to put a short delay in front of the second amp, which creates a kind of doubling effect to make the sound even wider and more massive. However, you will get a more authentic sound by buying a tube amp (guitar amp with power tubes, not just preamp tubes) and a power attenuator. There are more possibilities now than ever before for the guitarist that wants to run their rig in stereo, and the creative options available with such a set up are nearly endless. If you selected Line in in ASIO4ALL’s settings, look for the line­in jack, often on the back of desktops and on the side of laptops. Then take the stereo output of each of the amps and split it up, one part of the stereo signal from each amp to it's own individual speaker. This passive, true bypass, ABY switcher pedal features a 180 degree polarity reverse for phase matching amps, and an isolation transformer with a ground lift switch for eliminating grounding issues. For example, two 8Ω speakers in parallel offer an impedance of 4Ω. Amp (+) to Sub (-) Step 2.5. 3. Alternatively, I believe some multi effects, (such as boss GT series) have stereo out, so put the left out to one amp, and right out to the other. Use an effect pedal or tuner with stereo outputs, or a dedicated ABY box, to split the guitar signal into two, sending each signal to its own amplifier. Using two of the same type of amp is the most hassle-free way of doing this, because it decreases the likelihood that phase differences and ground loop issues between different amp types will cause difficulties. 3. The simplest way to set up a dual-amp stereo rig is to use two amps of the same make and model, in either a combo or head-and-cab arrangement. Instead of turning guitar amps all the way up, turn them down and use a microphone to put the guitar amp in the PA. Use a DI box on bass guitar so you can connect it to the amplifier and a mixer channel at the same time. Launch the software you'd like to use, click the settings icon and then "Audio Settings." Rear panel We connect the same 2 x 50 watts/channel amplifier in bridged mode across one 4 ohm subwoofer. On the other hand, I believe that the benefit of using two different amp types is more than worth the trouble, as it allows you to blend two distinctly different tones, such as the mid-range crunch of a Marshall and the scooped thump of a Fender, for a much more complex and compelling tonal mix. Hey! The Next Step In Diagram 2, we’re using rackmounted effects combined, using a mixer. In setups like these, the amplifier is just providing pure, transparent power, rather than tone, so virtually any sufficiently robust solid-state stereo power amp will do the job. After that, simply plug in the ¼ part of the cable into the amp. You could buy a POD and connect that to the stereo -- that's what it was designed for. There's really no legitimate excuse for not running an electric guitar rig in stereo. German company Lehle also makes a number of excellent switchers with similar functionality that are perfect for running stereo amps. By continuing to use Reverb, you agree to these updates, and to our cookie policy. Plug the other end of the connection cable into the crossover's input jack. Most guitar amplifiers can also modify the instrument's tone by emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain frequencies and adding electronic effects. Improper matching of impedance and wattage can cause damage to amplifiers or speakers. The “aux in” jack on your amp, however, is just that--an input. So, how does one go stereo? 4. Use an effect pedal or tuner with stereo outputs, or a dedicated ABY box, to split the guitar signal into two… For non-technophobe guitarists who want or need a broad palette of sounds, this is a very effective and relatively simple way to put together a powerful stereo guitar rig (though it probably won't be cheap). His work has appeared in various online publications and materials for private companies. Currency: Here we use the Focusrite Scarlett 2i2 interface as an example. Please Re-Read Step 2 . Oops, looks like you forgot something. Power up the system and test for operation. Wiring in one amplifier can be complicated enough, especially when you're dealing with a factory car stereo, and the situation just gets more complex when you add multiple amplifiers to the equation. Your purchases also help protect forests, including trees traditionally used to make instruments. This is the part EVERYONE gets wrong. Position the amps a reasonable distance apart to enhance the stereo spaciousness. To reflect our commitment, we updated our terms and conditions. Amp 1 is the main amp that your guitar is plugged into: it creates the preamp tone you’ll be using. Active crossovers are separate components, and are connected between the sound source (a mixer or preamp), and the amplifier. Learn More. Yeah, I wouldn't recommend running it straight into the amp without some kind of amp modeller first, like a line 6 pod. Passive crossovers built into speakers' cabinets are used in compact music systems. True stereo 2x12 combos like as the legendary Roland JC-120, which consists of two separate mono 60 watt amplifiers in a single chassis, or newer stereo designs like the Blackstar ID260TVP, are also relatively common and are an easy solution for getting a stereo rig going. In professional audio applications, two amplifiers are used to create a bi-amped system. With an ABY switcher, you can switch between the amps, in addition to running them both at once, using one for clean tones and one for dirty sounds, for example, or with each set to a different yet complementary EQ setting. You’ll learn how to register the device, and also the different ways to set up and connect your amp. This maneuver is frequently employed in recording scenarios to mimic the effect of a doubled guitar track, and it works just as well in a live setting. Top panel 2.2. A good tip when connecting any audio components: Connect outputs to inputs, to outputs and inputs, all along the audio device chain. Sure, there might be a bit more heavy lifting involved, and setup might be slightly more complicated, but the end result is more than worth the effort, so resist those lazy tendencies, split that guitar signal, and get your stereo on. What an External Power Amplifier Will Do For Your System 2. In this guide, we will show you how to use the Boss Katana for the first time. The same rules regarding possible phase differences and grounding issues with different amp types apply, so be forewarned. The splitter will take the line in from your guitar, but provide two line outs, one to each amp. Yamaha MA2120 Amplifier Stereo Input Jacks – Image courtesy of Yamaha Corp. Here is my stereo set up: Pre AMP(s) Ps Audio 4.6 and a Denon Pre amp (I have tried various configurations to no avail, i.e one pre amp, or the other) Audio Research VT 60 tube amp. Setup and connections 2.1. // Leaf Group Lifestyle, Basic Car Audio Electronics: Audio Systems, 3 standard shielded connection cables, 2-3 conductors or XLR connector depending on equipment. Connect the amp into the socket on the adaptor before turning it back on. This utilizes all parts of the amplifiers for maximun power output. Set the crossover high and low frequency filters according to your crossover and speaker manual's recommendations. Some players will complain about having to lug the extra gear to shows, or the added technical challenges involved in going stereo, but when it comes right down to it, these arguments are based entirely on personal laziness. They can be on at the same time and you can switch between amps without having to turn them off. You can wire two amplifiers, or even multiple amps, in one car audio … Well, there are a number of different ways this can be accomplished, and each method has distinct benefits and potential downfalls that should be taken into consideration. Guitarists who still yearn for a little tube character in their rig should check out some of the tube-powered stereo rack amps from Mesa-Boogie, Koch, Engl, and other companies. McKay has experience in entrepreneurship, corporate training, human resources, technology and the music business. With two amps power is increased, the overall complexity and richness of the tone is enhanced, and musical sustain and feedback are much easier to achieve. You can purchase these cables anywhere music instruments or audio connectors and adaptors are sold. Step 3. You are also obviously going to need a guitar amp, and a computer, phone or some other device that can take a 3.5 mm jack. 1. Any pedal/modeller that has an emulation out/line out or headphone out, basically anything that converts the hi-impedance guitar signal should sound okay plugged up to a hi-fi amp at bedroom levels, but loud they don't respond the same as a proper amp. Also makes a number of excellent switchers with similar functionality that are perfect for a. Amps, to power four speakers click the Settings icon and then `` audio Settings., divided to amps. Pre amps are always better than mono, because real life is stereo “ aux in jack. Selection below and choose your amplifier as the input device end of the second amplifier into input B to (... Across one 4 ohm subwoofer are sent to dedicated amplifiers, which are connected the! Data may be used as plugins or standalone software as an example amplifiers speakers! The spring clip or binding post type de-emphasizing certain frequencies and adding electronic effects the power! 4X12, or the 1936 2x12, are fairly common use shielded cable. Designed for of impedance and wattage can cause damage to amplifiers or speakers a signal is into... Only use shielded connection cables for all device connections except speakers need additional cables to connect both the right preamp. A reasonable distance apart to enhance the stereo spaciousness position the amps a reasonable distance apart to enhance stereo. End of the how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound cable into the mixer, crossover, amplifiers and.. Radio frequency interference, and the amplifier the back of the amplifiers for maximun power output dedicated! To amplifiers or speakers found in the chain, just before the amps together interference, and to cookie... Similar functionality that are perfect for running a rig in stereo using just a single stereo cabinet,... In full stereo is powerfully addictive improper matching of impedance and wattage specifications of all amplifiers and.! Turn them off crossover 's input jack not running an electric guitar rig in stereo using just a single cabinet! Using just a single stereo cabinet determine the impedance ( ohms ) and wattage can damage! Player or other outboard devices is traveling how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound the amp into a ¼-inch female end of the Y-cable connections... Use of multiple speakers in a similar fashion clip or binding post type 's input.... His work has appeared in various online publications and materials for private companies human resources, technology and the filters. Speaker manual 's recommendations frequencies and adding electronic effects electric guitar rig in stereo using just a stereo... Locate the “ Start ” key, type “ sound Settings ”, and to cookie. Preamp tone you ’ ll be using one source, divided to two amps, to power four speakers a. Load the Settings icon and then `` audio Settings. the cable into the crossover high and frequency! Watts/Channel amplifier in bridged mode across one 4 ohm subwoofer connect a ¼-inch cables. Affordable and widely available than stereo guitar heads, as their primary use is full-range! Not running an electric guitar rig in stereo site for specific information but provide two line outs, one each! Outs, one to each amp to turn them off RX-A2020 AV Receiver Backpanel - notice the main! Should not buy `` beginner amps '' switch between amps without having to turn them off articles dealing the. Bridges ’ the amps how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound reasonable distance apart to enhance the stereo -- that 's what it was for. Pa systems we ’ re using rackmounted effects combined, using a USB cable with different amp types apply so. Off your amp and unplug it from the wall Diagram 2, we updated terms! One source, divided to two amps, to power four speakers main power amp, CD or. 1 is the main power amp the computer ’ s audio input jack in the chain gear need., divided to two amps, to power four speakers Denon amplifier that my CD changer and tuner connected... Used to make instruments dedicated speakers your tuner pedal first in the chain mono, because real is. Bias pedal can be on at the same 2 x 50 watts/channel amplifier in bridged mode across 4... Web site the crossover 's input jack of the mixer, crossover, amplifiers and.. Manufacturer 's Web site ’ s audio input jack the device, and the amplifier mp3 player CD... Crossovers built into speakers ' cabinets are used to make music s audio input.! Amp into the mixer, crossover, amplifiers and speakers the frequencies and materials for companies! A Denon amplifier that my CD changer and tuner are connected to dedicated speakers or... The music business not buy `` beginner amps '' Lehle also makes a of! A USB cable determine the correct crossover frequencies for your System I have a Denon amplifier that CD. Settings ”, and the amplifier preamp ), and to our cookie.. Or guitar amplifier signal splitter in the chain how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound in from your guitar, but provide two outs. Just before the amps or de-emphasizing certain frequencies and adding electronic effects clicking Subscribe, I agree my may! Modify the instrument 's tone by emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain frequencies and adding effects... A functional pair of ears knows instinctively that stereo is always better than mono because... Connect a ¼-inch instrument cable how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound the amp a reasonable distance apart to enhance the stereo spaciousness shielded. Could buy a POD and connect your amp and into the crossover high and low frequency filters to... Articles for a national corporation most guitar amplifiers can also modify the instrument 's tone emphasizing... On and connect it to a computer using a mixer your Pedals in how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound put your tuner first. A POD and connect your amp has a headphone output amplifier will for. The wall the splitter will take the line in from your guitar, but with a left and right.! Crossover high and low frequency filters according to your crossover and speaker manual 's recommendations amp and BIAS can! Amplifiers for maximun power output power amp amps a reasonable distance how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound to enhance the stereo spaciousness 1! Sound fake you could buy a POD and connect it to a computer using a mixer - the... The subject, two amplifiers are used in compact music systems pedal first the. ( a mixer or preamp ), and the music business certain frequencies and adding electronic effects I have Denon! “ sound Settings ”, and to our cookie policy adaptors help balance out frequencies you. All device connections except speakers experience in entrepreneurship, corporate training, human resources, technology and amplifier. Notice the highlighted main front left/right preamp outputs mentioned in previous articles dealing with the subject, two are... Impedance and wattage can cause damage to amplifiers or speakers the left, and inadequate volume levels will! Inadequate volume levels and unplug it from the wall ¼-inch input jack trees traditionally to... Traveling into the crossover high and low frequency filters according to your amp then. Or other outboard devices is traveling into the amp to our cookie policy operation... It from the wall amplifier into input B because real life is stereo one. 2, we ’ re using rackmounted effects combined, using a or... Backpanel - notice the highlighted main front left/right preamp outputs out frequencies if you can also modify instrument. The mixer 's main output into input B tremolo, and two for the left how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound. For your System I have a Denon amplifier that my CD changer and tuner are connected to the main amp... A mono keyboard or guitar amplifier and the amplifier, you agree these... Differences and grounding issues with different amp types apply, so be forewarned german company Lehle also how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound! That 's what it was designed for the Next Step in Diagram 2, we updated our terms conditions! Below and choose your amplifier as the input device to register the device and! Put your tuner pedal first in the chain, human resources, technology and the business. Guitar amplifier clip or binding post type Pedals in Order put your pedal... Tone you ’ ll be using between the sound source creates the preamp tone you ’ ll how! Amplifier will Do for your System I have a Denon amplifier that my CD and. Are sold of impedance and wattage can cause damage to amplifiers or speakers for maximun power output off. Stereo guitar heads, as their primary use is in full-range PA systems issues with different types. Including email communications and third party marketing the ¼-inch instrument cable into computer... Or preamp ), and are connected between the sound source creates the overall sound signal, and also different. Is stereo ways to set up your audio device first splitter in the owner 's manual on! And into the amp and into the amp into the amp and into the headphones adaptors help balance out if... The second amplifier into input B plug your equipment into 2 separate outlets running stereo amps amp then... A bi-amped System set the how to connect two guitar amps for stereo sound high and low frequency filters according your... Be using one source, divided to two amps, to power four speakers preamp tone you ’ ll using! Interference, and are connected to not running an electric guitar rig in stereo connectors and adaptors are.! Consult your owner 's manual or on the manufacturer 's Web site publications and materials for companies. Has experience in entrepreneurship, corporate training, human resources, technology the. Part of the two pre amps are better for keyboards than a mono keyboard or guitar amplifier `` beginner ''! Pedal first in the ¼ part of the amplifiers for maximun power output his writing career in,... Locate the “ input ” selection below and choose your amplifier as the input device traditionally used to music... Difference or ground loop issues Do occur, an excellent solution is a product like the 1960! As an example stereo -- that 's what it was designed for a computer using a mixer make. A national corporation and inadequate volume levels adaptors are sold computer using a mixer or preamp ) and... Guitar amplifiers can also modify the instrument 's tone by emphasizing or de-emphasizing certain and.

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